How to install and activate RAID 1 Ubuntu (Server) 14.04 LTS Step-by-Step

This guide will describes the basic steps of installing Ubuntu Server 14.04 from beginning to end. is a fault-tolerance configuration known as “disk mirroring.” With RAID 1, data is copied seamlessly and simultaneously, from one disk to another, creating a replica, or mirror. If one disk gets fried, the other can keep working. It’s the simplest way to implement fault tolerance and it’s relatively low cost.The downside is that RAID 1 causes a slight drag on performance. RAID 1 can be implemented through either software or hardware. A minimum of two disks is required for RAID 1 hardware implementations. With software RAID 1, instead of two physical disks, data can be mirrored between volumes on a single disk. One additional point to remember is that RAID 1 cuts total disk capacity in half: If a server with two 1TB drives is configured with RAID 1, then total storage capacity will be 1TB not 2TB.

Following are the key points to remember for RAID level 1.

Minimum 2 disks.
Good performance ( no striping. no parity ).
Excellent redundancy ( as blocks are mirrored ).

Step 1 – Select what language you would like to install. I am going to use English language.

Step 2 – Select Install Ubuntu Server.

Step 3 – Select language that used for the installation process, default English.

Step 4 – Select location that will used for time zone and also for example to help select the system locale.

Step 5 – Configure keyboard layout.

Step 6 – Select country of origin for the keyboard. I am going to use English (US).

Step 7 – Select the layout matching the keyboard for your machine. Default English.

Step 8 – Auto configure network.

Step 9 – Set Up users – Enter full name or real name for the new user, then select .

Step 10 – Set Up users – Enter name for your account, then select .

Step 11 – Set Up password – Enter password for the new user.

Step 12 – Set Up password : Re-enter password for the new user.

Step 13 – Answer if you want to encrypt home directory. I recommend answer because if your hard driver ever gets corrupted and you need to retrieve information it will be much easier to access it.

Step 14 – Select your time zone.

Step 15 – Partition disks: In this case i will choose ‘Manual’.

Step 16 – Partitioning Disks: In this case, the disks are new and there are no partition tables on it. Select each disk to create a partition table.

Step 17 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create new empty partiton’.

Step 18 – Partitioning Disks: Select the free space on the first disk to create partitions on it.

Step 19 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create a new partition’.

Step 20 – Partitioning Disks: The first partition will be 10% fromm all HDD at the beginning of the disk (this will be used for swap space).

Step 21 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Primary’.

Step 22 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Beginning’.

Step 23 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Ext4 journaling file system’.

Step 24 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘physical volume for RAID’.

Step 25 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 26 – Partitioning Disks: Select the remaining free space on the first disk to create the 2nd partition. In this case, we will be using the remaining free space for this partition.

Step 27 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create new empty partiton’.

Step 28 – Partitioning Disks: Use all free space for the new partition.

Step 29 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Primary’.

Step 30 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Ext4 journaling file system’.

Step 31 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘physical volume for RAID’.

Step 32 – Partitioning Disks: Set bootable flag ‘ON’.

Step 33 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 34 – Partitioning Disks: Now I will create second HDD witt same parameters.

Step 35 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create new empty partiton’.

Step 36 – Partitioning Disks: Select the free space on the second disk to create partitions on it.

Step 37 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create a new partition’

Step 38 – Partitioning Disks: The second partition will be 10% fromm all HDD at the beginning of the disk (this will be used for swap space).

Step 39 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Primary’.

Step 40 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Beginning’.

Step 41 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Ext4 journaling file system’.

Step 42 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘physical volume for RAID’.

Step 43 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 44 – Partitioning Disks: Select the remaining free space on the second disk to create the 2nd partition. In this case, we will be using the remaining free space for this partition.

Step 45 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create new empty partiton’.

Step 46 – Partitioning Disks: Use all free space for the new partition.

Step 47 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Primary’.

Step 48 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Ext4 journaling file system’.

Step 49 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘physical volume for RAID’.

Step 50 – Partitioning Disks: Set bootable flag ‘ON’.

Step 51 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 52 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Configure raid’.

Step 53 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘YES’.

Step 54 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Create MD device’.

Step 55 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘RAID 1′.

Step 56 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Number of active devices for RAID 1 array’ – 2 .

Step 57 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Number of spare devices for the RAID 1 array’ – 0.

Step 58 – Partitioning Disks: Select first partition from HDD1 and HHD2 – /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1

Step 59 – Partitioning Disks: Create RAID for seconds partition – Choose ‘Create MD device’.

Step 60 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘RAID 1′.

Step 61 – Partitioning Disks: Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Number of active devices for RAID 1 array’ – 2 .

Step 62 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Number of spare devices for the RAID 1 array’ – 0.

Step 63 – Partitioning Disks: Select seconds partition from HDD1 and HHD2 – /dev/sda2 and /dev/sdb2

Step 64 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Finish’.

Step 65 – Partitioning Disks: To configure the swap RAID partition, select the 427.5 MB RAID device listed under ‘RAID1 device #0′.

Step 66 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Use as’.

Step 67 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘swap area’.

Step 68 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 69 – Partitioning Disks: To configure the swap RAID partition, select the 3.9 GB RAID device listed under ‘RAID1 device #0′.

Step 70 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Use as’.

Step 71 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Ext4 journaling file system’.

Step 72 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Mount point’.

Step 73 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘/ – the root file system’.

Step 74 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Dont setting up the partitions’.

Step 75 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Finish partitioning and write changes to disk’.

Step 76 – Partitioning Disks: If you can choose yes or no in this example i will choose ‘NO’. I will change it on ‘YES’ undel command line. I strongly recommend to choose ‘YES’.

Step 77 – Choose ‘YES’.

Step 78 – Partitioning Disks: Choose ‘Continue’ without entering anything.

Step 79 – Choose ‘no automatic updates’.

Step 80 – Choose ‘YES’.

Step 81 – You can view RAID status with this command cat /proc/mdstat

root@mail:/# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities :  [linear]  [multipath]  [raid0]  [raid1]  [raid6]  [raid5]  [raid4]  [raid10]
md0  :  active  raid1  sda1[0]  sdb1[1]
    7806912  blocks  super  1.2  [2/2]  [UU]

md1  :  active  raid1  sda2[0]  sdb2[1]
    968818496  blocks  super  1.2  [2/2]  [UU]

unused  devices:  none

Step 82 – Activate boot degraded array. Edit grub nano /etc/default/grub and edit follow line GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT as below:

GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT=”bootdegraded=true”

Step 83 – Upgrade-grub.

root@mail:/# update-grub

2 ThemeHow to FIX BUG – disk filter writes are not supported Ubuntu (Server)14.04

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